Greece: Water we have, brain e'hoyme.
Her CHARMS TZANAVARA
EXOYME, BUT PPOSEXOYME
Richly, but. wastefulness the characterizations for the policy of Greece in the sector of management of ydatjkw'n resources emanate from the most responsible mouths, those of scientists of OECD that drew up the recent report on the situation of environment in our country.
The term "richly" is reported in the reserves of water and the "wastefulness" in the lack of completed policy toward a good that anything but abounds in the nature. It is enough it is reported that the intensity of water in Greece, in other words the relation ana'mesa in the total pumping as for the available resources, is calculated in the 12% and is lightly higher than the mean of countries of international organism.
The main cause for this picture is the agriculture, after the per capita consumption of water in the domestic sector, despite the continuous increase, they are 830 cubic and she is lower than the mean.
The elements are revealing: Greece, in general lines, allocates big reserves of sweet water, after the height of annual rainfalls is shaped - on average - in 700 thousandth, that corresponds in 115 billions cubic metres. By these quantities, half are lost because the phenomenon exatmjsodjapnoi's, while other 35 billions cubic represent the surface flow of rivers of continental Greece and lead to the sea. The wastefulness in all the greatness.
Roughly the 87% of reserves of water of country are intended for agricultural use, where the situation is considered anything but encouraging. The losses in rudimentary, in most cases, irrigatory networks, reach until 80%. the wastefulness become still more revealing, if it is marked that the last 15 years, and despite the "brake of" last five-year period, the irrigated extents have been increased at 40%, so that they correspond in the one third of globally cultivated extent.
Example to be avoided constitutes the prefecture Argolida, where the last 40 years the arid cultures have been replaced by ydrovo'ra citrus fruits, so that almost have been exhausted the reserves. The drillings often reach in-depth up to 400 metres, so that we have for chronic extensive salinity of underground waters. In other words, nefarious circle.
The second "minus of" our country is the unequal distribution. The height of rainfall reaches the 900 thousandth in Corfu and the Gja'nnena, but is smaller than the 400 in Athens and Naxos. The experts say schematically that Greece is separated with a conceivable line in two departments. Eastern, that covers Eastern continental Greece, the islands of western Aegean and Eastern Crete, is poor in rains, contrary to western Greece. Of course certain regions in the southern and central country, as certain islands of Aegean and Crete, it is considered that they are found in the stage of desertation.
85 up to 90% of reserves it emanates from rivers and lakes, with first they gain the portion le'ontos, participating with percentage that exceeds 80%. the big quantities is ensured by eight big basins of draining: the Acheloos, Worthy, the Strimonas, the Alja'kmona, Ebros, the Nestos, the Arachthos and the Kalama'. With Alfios they run through in Greek territory above 100 kilometres. Four from them (Ebros, Nestos, Strimonas and Worthy) they spring from neighbouring country and reach in the Greek borders "carrying" 12 billions cubic metres of water. They are what for are created each so much crises with Bulgaria and the state of Former Yougoslave Republic of Macedonia.
In surface waters they contribute also 41 natural lakes, from which the 19 with area more from 5 square kilometres, what cover globally more from 6 mill. acres, the 0, 5% of total extent of country. Biggest are the Trichonida, the Vo'lvi and the Vegoritis, while the Big Pre'spa is shared also in Albania and the Former Yougoslave Republic of Macedonia. Exist also 14 artificial lakes, from which the ten have surface more from 5 square, while the total represents 260.000 acres. In our country they have, finally, it is recorded 378 water biotopes that cover more from 2 mill. acres. According to the World Fund for Nature (WWF), nine by the eleven more important water biotopes, that are protected - obviously in the. papers - from the international convention Ramsar, they are characterized polluted.
The underground waters represent the 10 until 15% of total reserves, have however important role in the irrigations, after they ensure the 40% of quantities that is consumed in this important for our country sector.
The domestic consumption corresponds in the 10% of roughly
quantities that is consumed each year. Today the 90% of
households have access in network of water supply, against 30% the
decade ' 50. Present however separate ' interest because the high
requirements on issues quality. Athens in deed is from the
minimal capitals in the world that allocates potable water from the
central network of water supply. This does not mean that all are
ro'djna, mainly in the remainder urban centres.
FREE PRESS - 11/11/2000
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