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Which water pj'nej the capital

The dros DJONYSJOY of FOREIGNER of directing adviser of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS

From the antiquity Athens connects her history and her life with a basic problem: the water shortage, the insufficiency of that is to say water. And this because the surface waters were always very little, kacw's do not exist big rivers in Attica ground. Thus, the water feeder of city became mainly from sources and wells. At the same time existed many kri'nes scattered in in the city, as crowd of reservoirs, in which was assembled the vro'hjno water (omvrode'ktes).

From the gnwsto'tera ancient aqueducts was the Pejsjstra'tejo, that manufactured the Pejsj'stratos the 530 p.H., length 2.800 m. and which it drew water from the sources of Hymettus. Existed of course also other smaller aqueducts in various points of city, laxeyme'na in slate or manufactured from ceramic items connected with lead, as well as ydromastey'sejs voicoy'menes from mjkrofra'gmata.

The more important however historical work for the water feeder of city of Athens was the Adrja'nejo Aqueduct, that was manufactured by the Roman emperor Adrjano' (134-140 p.H.). It began from their foot of Parnitha and it led to the Lykavitto', where was manufactured the Adrja'nejos Reservoir, in which were stored the waters of aqueduct. The waters were channelled in Athens with canal bridges. The aqueduct functioned satisfactorily up to the subjection of Athens from their Toy'rkoys, that adranopoj'isan.

Afterwards the release of Greece the Adrja'nejo xanalejtoy'rgise, without however it can cover the needs of capital. Them it came cover in the beginning of previous century the manufacture of dam of Maracw'na and the creation of homonym artificial lake. The manufacture of dam undertook American Company ULEN, while the supervision and his later management the Greek Company of Waters (EEY). The work for the manufacture of dam of Maracw'na and tunnel Mpogjatj'oy, that would transport waters of lake in the Units of Treatment of Water (MEN) in the Galatsi, began in 1925 and they were completed 1929.

The swift rythm of growth and the increase of population of capital led to the search of new sources ydrolibj'as. Thus, in 1956 was inaugurated the work for the integration in the system of water feeder of Athens and natural lake Ylj'kis, that is found in the prefecture Viotia. At the same time they began to be developed also the sources of water in the Soy'lj, in the Aqueduct Kakosa'lesj and in Saint Thomas. In 1972 the beginning of manufacture of hwma'tjnoy dam in the river Mo'rno in the prefecture Fokida led to the creation of artificial lake of Mo'rnoy. The aqueduct of Mo'rnoy is a channel of free flow that transports water in the Units of Treatment of Water. It is the second bigger aqueduct in Europe, length of 192 km and is constituted by open aqueduct, tunnels and sj'fwnes. Biggest paroheteytjko'tita the channel afterwards the end of work that is executed now they will be the order of 1.900.000 k.m. of/day it is marked that the ydatagwgo's Mo'rnoy does not only supply Attica but ydrey'ej and 18 municipalities and communities of prefectures Fokida and Viotia that is found at length of aqueduct. Also, in the river Ey'ino, in the region of Saint Dimitrios of prefecture Etoloakarnania, is completed a very big work of water supply that will strengthen the capital with 220.000.000 k.m. of water the by year's.

Important role in the water feeder of Athens possess also the drillings. The underground ydrofo'roj horizons are not used daily, constitute however precious reserves in cases of need. It is 105 drillings in the north-eastern Parnitha, in the region Ylj'kis and round the Vojwtjko' Kifjso'. The drillings in total have the possibility of attributing 600.000 k.m. of water the day, for checked however temporally intervals, and it should they are safeguarded as factor of safety for the adja'lejpti water feeder of Athens.

More specifically, the way that follows water is following: from the tanks, via the two big aqueducts Mo'rnoy and Ylj'kis, the water reaches in the Units of Treatment of Water (MEN). There it is submitted in suitable treatments so that it is rendered potable. In the Basin of Attica function four MEN: the Galatsi, the Aharnw'n, the Polydendrj'oy and the Ma'ndras (Aspropy'rgoy).

Stages of treatment and control of water

The water that reaches in MEN is crude. It contains various solid particles (kladja', earth, mud) that it drifts at his passage, as also microbes and micro-organisms. The water with the treatment in which it is submitted (coagulation, subsidence, refinement, disinfection) it is exempted from the parapa'nw elements. In MEN is followed the following treatment:

1. Addition of chloride and disinfection. With the prohlwrj'wsi are killed the microbes that exist in water and are facilitated his later treatment.

2. Addition of cejjkoy' aluminium and djay'gasi. The solution of cejjkoy' aluminium helps the solid particles that exist to be incorporated between them and katakacj'soyn (coagulation).

3. Reservoir of subsidence. In ayti'n.to water it calms also down incorporated firmly (krokj'des) kacjza'noyn in her seabed. In this way the water is cleaned in percentage 80%.

4. Filters of cleaning (ammo'fjltra). The very light particles and the colloids (20%) that kacjza'noyn are withheld in specifically ammo'fjltra, from which the water comes out anymore clean, ready it is given in the consumption.

Provided that the prohlwrj'wsi is not satisfactory, is added additionally chloride at the exit of water from the closed reservoirs of storage and before his entry in the network of water supply.

Except however from the parapa'nw cleanings in which it beings the water, essential is also the microbiological control of water and the simultaneous measurement of his likely toxicity. Because for the production of potable water is used surface water, is rendered obligatory the permanent follow-up of pollution in the sources ydrolibj'as.

In the microbiological laboratory of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS become all the analyses of microbes that potential pollute water. These microbes can be bacteria, parasitises and viruses. It deserves here it is pointed out that daily are described in all the world cases of epidemics and deaths from aqueous infections, that is to say from the consumption of polluted water. Most important than these are the cholera, the tyfoejdi's fever, the diarrhoeas, the gastroenterites, the kryptosporjdj'asi, the malaria, yellow fever k.a'. from which it bears big department of population, main Africa but also Europe.

At time interval 1987-2000, by the results of microbiological analyses of water of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS, it was realised that the microbes that are contained in unrefined water are minimal and in particular in the lower limits of prices that impose the directives of EEC. Also, the processed water that is distributed by the installations of treatment of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS is healthy and the exempted from the microbiological indicators of pollution, while water in the tap of Athenians presents only transitory and insignificant problems because Adranos of substances, that however are not considered dangerous and are faced immediately. This means that minimal problems of quality face the Athenians, while all Europe and America are pestered occasionally by big aqueous epidemics.

Except the microbiological analyses, the control of quality of water includes also chemical analyses, measurements organic and inorganic pollutants, pesticides, toxic and biological substances.

Deductively, the water of Mo'rnoy, Ylj'kis and Maracw'na has very low number of microbes and his disinfection is effective.

Control of quality of water

The water that leaves from the refineries for distribution in the consumption is sure, potable and it fills the terms of relative sanitary provisions. The water of Athens of is most excellent quality. It is more well considered from Europe, if we think that in Europe as potable water is used at crown bottling.

Potable water is characterized the water that is clean from natural, chemical, biological and microbiological opinion and can be consumed without it exposes in danger the health of person. The potable water should be colourless, a'osmo, cool and with pleasant flavour. It should not it has big cruelty because this causes difficulties in the daily but also industrial use. It should not it contains big quantity of organic substances, heavy metals neither pathogenic parasitises or microbes. The temperature should be constant in the 10-15 degrees of Celsius. At the qualitative control of water are searched basically the following characteristics:

* Osmi'-Flavour

* Colour

* Turbidity

* Alkaljko'tita - acidity - pH

* Microbes

* Cruelty

Network of water supply

As network of water supply is fixed the total of conductors that transports djyljsme'no water from locally MEN up to the hydrometers of consumers. The network that functions today had begun to be manufactured afterwards 1926 from the EEY (Greek Company of Waters) at the same time with the manufacture of big work of water supply (dam Maracw'na, tunnel Mpogjatj'oy k.t.l.). the total length of network it is today 7.000 km It is constituted from 1.500 km of main trofodotjkw'n conductors and 5.500 km of secondary conductors of distribution. The 65% of total length of conductors are constituted by pipes of asbestos-cement, the 15% from halyvdoswli'nes, the 15% from cast-irons pipes and the 5% from pipes PVC.

The WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS provides water in regions with altitude of soil from 0 up to 600 metres from the level of sea. The total number of ydrometritw'n (consumers) amounts in 1.600.000 roughly.

Forty five reservoirs of city of total capacity of 190.000 k.m. are found scattered in tall points of city, from which the water via the network of distribution reaches in the consumers. Automatic system tilele'ghoy - tilehejrjsmoy' it watches the operation of network of water supply. Most however handlings become ad loc from the personnel of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS. The total volume of reservoirs of storage of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS that serves the network amounts in 1.022.000 k.m. of water.

Management of ydatjkw'n resources

It is known that fundamental motive for the progress and the growth is the continuous upgrade of level and the quality of life of person. The realisation of this vision is rendered possible by the exploitation of natural environment. Thus, in the name of prosperity and bliss was achieved the giantism of technological progress with result the maximisation of degree of intervention of person in the nature.

The consequences from this generalised activity caused problems in the ecosystem and inevitable climatic changes, with effects in the ydatjkoy's resources, in the cultures, k.t.l.

And while in the sector of management of [ydatikon] resources are developed techniques and tools for the multidimensional exploitation of water, do not exist however a total planning for the systematic confrontation of two more serious dangers that threatens today the [ydatikoys] resources per the world: the pollution and the water shortage. Constitutes therefore, critical point in our season without delay equitable and completed management of [ydatikon] resources. This presupposes citizens and institutions really open in the prospect of changes in the daily habits that were acquired in periods of sufficiency of this natural good.

The running hydrologic year was for Attica of poorer last decade. It is characteristic that until now and in the three tanks of WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS entered in total 130.000.000 [k].[m] of water, quantity that is of course under the annual needs of consumption of Basin of Attica. Today the recoverable reserves and in the three tanks amount at about 700.000.000 [k].[m]., quantity which under smooth conditions ensures the water feeder of Basin for interval of roughly two years. As long as, that is to say, time interval is considered satisfactory - accordingly with the international criteria for urban groups of size of capital.

The Water Company of Athens and Pireaus however, having recent the painful memory of water shortage, does not rely on. It appeases the citizens of Basin that are overwhelmed the biggest possible efforts in order to do not come back those memories. They find in development important work of restriction of escapes in the network of transport, but also distribution of water in the city.

The administrative Drawing of water feeder of capital is supported in a single system of sources [ydrolipsias], that apart from the three known tanks - also strengthened from waters of [Eyinoy]- it includes more from hundred drillings in various points, mainly Attica and Viotia. This drillings, that in the past few year are maintained in phase of maintainance, are ready to contribute, if it needs, in the dissuasion of danger of water shortage, but also in the aid of safety of available reserves of water.

In this direction and with datum that substantially hydrologic year 2000-2001 goes to his end, the WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS is to increase, in the immediately following interval, the [ydrolipsia] from lake [Yliki] and to place in use also a number of drillings. Objective of this energy is to maintain in high degree of safety the reserves of [Mornoy] and more generally to manage rationally the total [ydatiko] balance until the beginning of following hydrologic year 2001-2002, when it is expected is placed in use the dam of [Eyinoy]. With this way it is ensured that, even if the next hydrologic year is equally poor with the running year, will result particularly serious problem.

Independent however the Administrative Drawing that it applies the WATER COMPANY OF ATHENS AND PIREAUS, is necessary and the attendance of citizens in the rational use of water, a good that is intended for use and no for wastefulness, a natural resource that is internationally in insufficiency
ELEUTHEROTIPIA - 21/08/2001

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